Hình Ý- Bát quái

形意拳 - XingYi quan

Hình Ý- Bát quái

Gửi bàigửi bởi wudang » Thứ 3 07/02/06 18:20

EXPLANATION OF ZHANG ZHANKUI'S LINEAGE


Zhang Zhankui, another name is Zhang Zhaodong, was the founder of Xing Yi-Ba Gua Palm, which was very popular in Tianjin, even in Northern China also. He was born in 1858 and died on July, 1938(Chinese Lunar Calander). Xing Yi-Ba Gua Palm is a combination of Xing Yi and Ba Gua. It took the advantage of two styles.

Many people think that Zhang Zhankui learned Ba Gua from Dong Haichuan, the founder of the Ba Gua. Actually, that is wrong.
My grandfather was one of Zhang's students. When my grandfather was alive, he told me that Zhang just met Dong Haichuan in Beijing a few times, Dong did not teach him. His Ba Gua knowledge was from Cheng Tinghua, the founder of Cheng style Ba Gua. I was told this answer by many old masters when I was in China.


The history is:
Zhang Zhankui was born in 1865 in the county of Tianjin. He met Li Cunyi, one of the best Xing Yi masters, when he went to Tianjin to find a job at the age of 13. And Li Cunyi took him as a sworn brother and introduced him to his own teacher, Liu Qilan, the representative figure of Xing Yi school at that time. So from that time, Liu and Li helped Zhang Zhankui to master Xing Yi system.


When he was 16 years old, he met Cheng Tinghua in Beijing. Cheng introduced him to Dong Haichuan. However, Dong was very old at that time, he could not teach any more. And Zhang asked Cheng to teach him, Cheng refused him also. Dong died in one year after Cheng met him.


Later on, a chance for Zhang Zhankui came. He helped Cheng Tinghua to get some property through court. So Cheng Tinghua began to teach him after that to return the favour.


In China, there was a tradition. It was that a senior student could take students for his dead teacher if the students were qualified. So Cheng Tinghua took Zhang Zhankui as a student of Dong Haichuan, his teacher. And this is why Zhang Zhankui is one of the eight disciples of Dong Haichuan. But the history is, Dong Haichuan never taught anything to Zhang Zhankui.


Cheng Died in 1900, killed by German soldiers when eight countries invaded China. From that time, Zhang Zhankui began to develop his own style, the combination of Xing Yi and Ba Gua. This is how this style came to be.


People take him as a student of Dong Haichuan, that is martial art tradition. But to the issue of lineage of knowledge, I still prefer put him under the name of Cheng Tinghua, instead of Dong Haichuan.


I would like to publish this part of history here. Because I worry that people will not know this part in the future. Some things are written in books do not have to be real, and some things are not written in books do not have to be wrong…

Written by Yang Hai.
wudang
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 407
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 05/02/06 19:19

Gửi bàigửi bởi motgiot » Thứ 4 08/02/06 6:41

Originally posted by wudang
When he was 16 years old, he met Cheng Tinghua in Beijing. Cheng introduced him to Dong Haichuan. However, Dong was very old at that time, he could not teach any more. And Zhang asked Cheng to teach him, Cheng refused him also. Dong died in one year after Cheng met him.


Later on, a chance for Zhang Zhankui came. He helped Cheng Tinghua to get some property through court. So Cheng Tinghua began to teach him after that to return the favour.


Ban Wudang,

Thật sự rất khó khi nói về những chyện xãy ra trong quá khứ. Sau đây là những đoạn trích trong báo Bakua Journal:

“Chang and a group of his martial arts friends had all heard of the famous Hsing-I man Liu Chi-Lan and wanted to meet him. The group got together and went to visit Liu to ask if they could study his art. In addition to Chang Chao-Tung, Li Ts'un-I was also among the group. Most of these practitioners were in their twenties. Chang was the youngest and thus he was known as "little brother." “

“Chang Chao-Tung was naturally very agile and coordinated. When Liu Chi-Lan showed him something, he would pick it up very fast. It is said that Chang was one of Liu's "inner door" disciples who really got the essence of his teaching.”


“His skill eventually got to the level of practice where his form was the result of his intent, his intent was manifest in his form, his form followed the changes of his intent and his intent was born of the form. This is said to be the highest level of martial arts skill.”


“When Chang was 20 there was a famine in his village. The situation was so bad that he could not support himself there, so he left home and traveled to Tianjin. “

“Due to his experiences with bullies in his home village when he was young, Chang hated to see people bullying others so he would always go to the aid of anyone who was being picked on. He gained a reputation with the local hoods as someone that was not to be messed with. The local
people gave him the name, "The man who surpassed the heaven conqueror." Because the criminals respected his skill, when he was around there was less crime. The government officials recognized his talent for dealing with criminals and thus they gave him a job as the "thief
catcher." His job was basically that of a bounty hunter. When a criminal was wanted in connection with a crime and needed to be apprehended, they would send Chang out to get him. Because Chang was good at his job, he became famous in Tianjin for being very righteous and helping the oppressed. “

Chang Learns Pa Kua Chang
“Shortly after Chang Chao-Tung started working as a thief catcher, the famous second generation Pa Kua Chang instructor Ch'eng T'ing-Hua was visiting Tianjin and ran into some trouble. Chang Chao-Tung helped Ch'eng with his problem and the two became friends. Chang mentioned to Ch'eng that he would like to learn Pa Kua Chang. Ch'eng told Chang that he would be glad to teach him and he would also take him to meet his teacher Tung Hai-Ch'uan. Chang frequently traveled to Beijing to track down bandits who had fled Tianjin. Ch'eng introduced him to Tung Hai-Ch'uan and from that time forward, whenever he was in Beijing he studied with Tung or Ch'eng.
Since Tung Hai-Ch'uan died shortly after Chang Chao-Tung met him, he probably did not study directly with Tung very much. Most believe that while he may have met Tung Hai-Ch'uan and studied a bit, he actually learned the majority of his Pa Kua from Ch'eng T'ing-Hua. The most popular story states that when Chang met Ch'eng T'ing-Hua and wanted to study Pa Kua, Ch'eng told him that since he was already a skilled Hsing-I Ch'uan practitioner and a well known martial artist, Ch'eng felt he and Chang were contemporaries and thus did not want to call him a "student." He took Chang to Tung Hai-Ch'uan and Tung accepted him as a student, however, he really learned the majority of his Pa Kua Chang from Ch'eng.


Cái nào make more sense là tuỳ mỗi người chúng ta chọn lựa. Tôi đồng ý với thầy bạn trong một khía cạnh: "Some things are written in books do not have to be real, and some things are not written in books do not have to be wrong… " Nhưng những lời truyền miệng cũng do not have to be right. Facts không lệ thuộc vào books hay khẩu truyền, lời nói mà viết thành sách thì hậu thế khi đọc đôi khi quên rằng lời trong sách là chuyển tải từ miệng đời.

Dù sao cũng rất cám ơn post this info cho mọi người tham khảo.

Thân ái
motgiot
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 248
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 4 14/12/05 1:07
Đến từ: usa

Gửi bàigửi bởi wudang » Thứ 4 08/02/06 13:35

Xin hoi anh Mot giot theo anh thi mon Hinh y_ Bat quai cua Zhang Zhao Dong sang lap ra la co that hay khg vi toi cung chua ve Thien Tan bao gio de tim hieu va gap cac vo su khac cua He phai Zhang zhao Dong va duoc tan mat nhin thay ma so sanh voi nhung gi Yang Hai day cho con trai cai goi la HinhY- Bat Quai, theo ban than toi nhin nhan thi toi thay nhieu ky thuat Hinh Y hon Bat quaỉ trong nhung bai quyen nay. Voi lai toi moi nhap mon co 3 nam thoi nen chi hoc den nhung bai quyen Bat Quai Chuong cua ho Cheng va mot so ky Thuat ve Vat cua Cheng Tinh Hua. Ky thuat ve Vat nay thi toi cung chua tim duoc bang dia cua Vo su Trung Quoc goi la noi tieng nao de so sang. Con ve Bat Quai thi ve co Ban Hinh cung kha giong voi Bang dia cua Vo Su Liu Ching Ru va Application thi cung giong mot so dong tac ma Ma Lincheng bieu dien (anh co the thay ban, co in hinh Ma lincheng day hoc tro tren www.chinafrominside.com phan store ban dia ve Bat quai).Toi rat muon nghe y kien cua anh ve ky thuat ve Hinh Y- Bat quai ma Zhang sang tao ra. Vi nhin nhan tu 1 phia thi Yang Hai co the noi sai va kien thuc Hinh y -Bat quai phai chang khg do Zhang Zhao Dong sang tao ra? Yang Hai co viet:

Zhang Zhankui, another name is Zhang Zhaodong, was the founder of Xing Yi-Ba Gua Palm, which was very popular in Tianjin, even in Northern China also. He was born in 1858 and died on July, 1938(Chinese Lunar Calander). Xing Yi-Ba Gua Palm is a combination of Xing Yi and Ba Gua. It took the advantage of two styles.

Cheng Died in 1900, killed by German soldiers when eight countries invaded China. From that time, Zhang Zhankui began to develop his own style, the combination of Xing Yi and Ba Gua. This is how this style came to be.

Rat cam on anh ve nhung thong tin va y kien danh gia cua anh!
wudang
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 407
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 05/02/06 19:19

Gửi bàigửi bởi wudang » Thứ 4 08/02/06 17:20

(The source of this biographical information is the Pa Kua Chang Journal Vol. 3, No. 6 Sept/Oct 1993)



Chang Chao-Tung (Zhang Zhao-Dong also known as Chang Chan-K'uei) was born in Hebei Province, He Chien County, Ho Hung Yan Village (some sources say the name of his village was Chung Yuen). The youngest of three children, he was born in 1859. His father was a poor farmer and his family was often bullied by those in authority. Later in life, when Chang became skilled in martial arts, he was very harsh on bullies because of what had happened to his family when he was young. As one biographer has written, "Chang Chan-K'uei was big and tall, shorttempered and bold. He firmly opposed those who were roughshod over the people and disturbed public order."

Chang only had a primary school education because he had to quit school when he was still young in order to help his father in the fields. In his spare time he liked to practice martial arts, studying with teachers in his village. The first martial art he studied was Mi Tsung Chuan (also known as Yen Ch'ing Chuan) a martial arts style which was popular in Northern China. He practiced until his skill was extensive. Later he became a Hsing-I Ch'uan disciple of Liu Chi-Lan. Liu Chi-Lan, a Hsing-I student of Li Neng-Jan, had reached the highest level of Hsing-I skill and taught Chang all he knew.

Chang Chao-Tung met Liu Chi-Lan when he was still a teenager. Chang and a group of his martial arts friends had all heard of the famous Hsing-I man Liu Chi-Lan and wanted to meet him. The group got together and went to visit Liu to ask if they could study his art. In addition to Chang Chao-Tung, Li Ts'un-I was also among the group. Most of these practitioners were in their twenties. Chang was the youngest and thus he was known as "little brother." Liu agreed to teach them and thus they would all frequently travel from their respective home villages to study with Liu Chi-Lan.

Chang Chao-Tung was naturally very agile and coordinated. When Liu Chi-Lan showed him something, he would pick it up very fast. It is said that Chang was one of Liu's "inner door" disciples who really got the essence of his teaching. Chang practiced bare hand boxing until he mastered that and then went on to study Hsing-I weapons. His skill eventually got to the level of practice where his form was the result of his intent, his intent was manifest in his form, his form followed the changes of his intent and his intent was born of the form. This is said to be the highest level of martial arts skill.

When Chang was 20 there was a famine in his village. The situation was so bad that he could not support himself there, so he left home and traveled to Tianjin. When he arrived in Tianjin he had difficulty finding a job because his only skill was that of a farmer. To raise money for food he demonstrated martial arts forms on the side of the road and people would give him money.

Due to his experiences with bullies in his home village when he was young, Chang hated to see people bullying others so he would always go to the aid of anyone who was being picked on. He gained a reputation with the local hoods as someone that was not to be messed with. Because the criminals respected his skill, when he was around there was less crime. The government officials recognized his talent for dealing with criminals and thus they gave him a job as the "thief catcher." His job was basically that of a bounty hunter. When a criminal was wanted in connection with a crime and needed to be apprehended, they would send Chang out to get him.

Shortly after Chang Chao-Tung started working as a thief catcher, the famous second generation Pa Kua Chang instructor Ch'eng T'ing-Hua was visiting Tianjin and ran into some trouble. Chang Chao-Tung helped Ch'eng with his problem and the two became friends. Chang mentioned to Ch'eng that he would like to learn Pa Kua Chang. Ch'eng told Chang that he would be glad to teach him and he would also take him to meet his teacher Tung Hai-Ch'uan. Chang frequently traveled to Beijing to track down bandits who had fled Tianjin. Ch'eng introduced him to Tung Hai-Ch'uan and from that time forward, whenever he was in Beijing he studied with Tung or Ch'eng.

Since Tung Hai-Ch'uan died shortly after Chang Chao-Tung met him, he probably did not study directly with Tung very much. Most believe that while he may have met Tung Hai-Ch'uan and studied a bit, he actually learned the majority of his Pa Kua from Ch'eng T'ing-Hua. The most popular story states that when Chang met Ch'eng T'ing-Hua and wanted to study Pa Kua, Ch'eng told him that since he was already a skilled Hsing-I Ch'uan practitioner and a well known martial artist, Ch'eng felt he and Chang were contemporaries and thus did not want to call him a "student." He took Chang to Tung Hai-Ch'uan and Tung accepted him as a student, however, he really learned the majority of his Pa Kua Chang from Ch'eng.

The majority of the martial arts students studying in Tianjin in the early part of this century were either students of Chang Chao-Tung or Li Tsun-I. They ran a very well known martial arts association in Tianjin and all boxers knew of their efforts to spread the martial arts. In Tianjin Chang taught private students and he taught a public class once a week. Students in the public class could study either Pa Kua Chang or Hsing-I Ch'uan, whichever they preferred. Chang required his private students and "inner door" students to study Hsing-I before they studied Pa Kua. When he first started teaching in Tianjin, he taught mostly Hsing-I. After he had more experience with Pa Kua, Chang taught both Pa Kua and Hsing-I. Later in his life, Chang Chao-Tung and Liang Chen-P'u were the only two people who had studied with Tung Hai-Ch'uan who were still alive. Out of respect for Tung Hai-Ch'uan and Pa Kua, Chang only taught Pa Kua in his later years.

Since Chang Chao-Tung was a Hsing-I man, his Pa Kua Chang naturally had a Hsing-I flavor. Chang Chao-Tung was also a big man and was very strong. He liked to use very wide, open postures in training and liked to strike down on his smaller opponents when fighting. His Pa Kua Chang form and applications were very direct and relatively simple compared to others. Because Chang was bigger and stronger than most of his opponents, his Pa Kua technique is not as evasive as Yin Fu's and because of his Hsing-I background, he did not utilize as many throwing techniques as someone like Ch'eng T'ing-Hua who had come from a Shuai Chiao background. Due to his size and background, his Pa Kua Chang technique was very direct and powerful.

When Chang was over 70, he still participated in the preparation and administration of martial arts events in Tianjin and performed Pa Kua Chang demonstrations at these events. He was well known throughout China for his boxing skill and was frequently invited to other areas of the country to participate in martial arts events.

Some sources state that Chang Chao-Tung died in 1938, however, according to the writings left by his student Chiang Jung-Chiao (Jiang Rong-Qiao), he died in 1940 of natural causes in Tianjin at the age of 81. His second son, Chang Shih-Kuang, also practiced Hsing-I and Pa Kua. His best students were Wang Chun-Ch'en, Han Mu-Hsia, Yao Fu-Ch'un, Ch'ien Sung-Ling, Liu Pu-Ching, Chao Tao-Hsin, Wei Mei-Ju, Liu Ch'ao-Hai, Chang Yu-T'ing, Chou Yu-Tan, and Chiang Jung-Ch'iao (Jiang Rong-Qiao).
wudang
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 407
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 05/02/06 19:19

Gửi bàigửi bởi motgiot » Thứ 5 09/02/06 6:23

Originally posted by wudang
Xin hoi anh Mot giot theo anh thi mon Hinh y_ Bat quai cua Zhang Zhao Dong sang lap ra la co that hay khg


Bạn Wudang,

Tôi chưa từng nghe Chang Chao-tung thiết lập hệ phái “Hsing-I-Ba-kua”. Tuy nhiên ông có sáng tác một bài bát quái chưởng kết hợp với ngũ hình quyền trong Hình ý mà dòng phái tôi có tập gọi là "ngũ hình chưởng". Dòng phái tôi có TC HY BQ, mỗi môn đều có tính độc lập của nó, tuy nhiên chúng thống nhất trên phương diện "nội gia yếu lĩnh", về "hình" thì chúng không mâu thuẩn với nhau. Thí dụ trong ngũ hình quyền của Hình ý "páo chuan" các môn phái khác tay che ở tráng thì chúng tôi che cao hơn tráng và cong giống như TCQ.

Bạn Wudang có thể bỏ dấu tiéng Việt không:)

Thân ái
motgiot
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 248
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 4 14/12/05 1:07
Đến từ: usa

Gửi bàigửi bởi wudang » Thứ 2 10/04/06 12:24

Copi tử trang web www.zhengguamen.com

L’enseignement de Zhang Zhao Dong et le Xingyi Bagua

Jiang Rong Qiao, dans ses écrits, a contribué à l’information sur l’existence du Xingyi bagua (Hsing i ba gua), expression que Zhang Zhao Dong a employée. Cette appellation désigne à la fois l’école de Zhang Zhao Dong, et une méthode de Bagua zhang mise au point par lui, qui synthétise le Xing yi quan et le Bagua zhang anciens. Mais déjà, dans l’esprit du public intéressé par les méthodes internes, la dénomination de Xing yi quan porte à confusion : parmi plusieurs méthodes d’entraînement portant le même nom, seul le Xing yi quan systématisé par Li Luo Neng dans la province du Hebei est relativement connu ; or, cette méthode, également enseignée par Zhang Zhao Dong, n’intervient pas dans la synthèse Xingyi Bagua.
Il n’est dès lors pas simple de présenter rapidement ces méthodes internes d’entraînement. Le moyen le plus direct est de s’adonner à la pratique. On peut évoquer les principes fondateurs de ces disciplines, mais il faut de toute façon abandonner l’habitude actuelle d’aborder ces pratiques par un pseudo-historique fait de fables puériles et de généalogies encombrantes.
wudang
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 407
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 05/02/06 19:19

Gửi bàigửi bởi wudang » Thứ 3 11/04/06 11:38

Originally posted by wudang
Copi tử trang web www.zhengguamen.com

L’enseignement de Zhang Zhao Dong et le Xingyi Bagua

Jiang Rong Qiao, dans ses écrits, a contribué à l’information sur l’existence du Xingyi bagua (Hsing i ba gua), expression que Zhang Zhao Dong a employée. Cette appellation désigne à la fois l’école de Zhang Zhao Dong, et une méthode de Bagua zhang mise au point par lui, qui synthétise le Xing yi quan et le Bagua zhang anciens. Mais déjà, dans l’esprit du public intéressé par les méthodes internes, la dénomination de Xing yi quan porte à confusion : parmi plusieurs méthodes d’entraînement portant le même nom, seul le Xing yi quan systématisé par Li Luo Neng dans la province du Hebei est relativement connu ; or, cette méthode, également enseignée par Zhang Zhao Dong, n’intervient pas dans la synthèse Xingyi Bagua.
Il n’est dès lors pas simple de présenter rapidement ces méthodes internes d’entraînement. Le moyen le plus direct est de s’adonner à la pratique. On peut évoquer les principes fondateurs de ces disciplines, mais il faut de toute façon abandonner l’habitude actuelle d’aborder ces pratiques par un pseudo-historique fait de fables puériles et de généalogies encombrantes.


Tôi xin tạm dich:

Về cách truyền dạy của Trương Triệu Đông va môn Hinh Ý-Bát quái

Jiang Rong Qiao trong những bài viết của minh đã góp phần cung cấp thông tin về sự tồn tại của môn Hình ý-Bát quái, thuật ngữ mà Trương Triệu Đông đà sử dụng. Tên gọi này đồng thời dùng để chỉ hệ phái (hoặc môn phái) của Trương Triệu Đông, và cách thức giảng dạy Bát Quái được bản thân ông ta đúc kết lại bằng sự tổng hợp hai môn Hinh ý và bát quái truyền thống. Nhưng ngay bản thân tên của môn Hình ý đã làm cho những người quan tâm đến các môn nội gia quyền có sự nhầm lẫn: chỉ có Hình ý quyền ở Hà Bắc được Lý Lặc Năng hệ thống lả ít nhiều được biết đến; thế nhưng kỹ thuât này, cũng được họ Trương truyền dạy, không có trong Hỉnh ý-Bát quái tổng hợp của ông...
wudang
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 407
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 05/02/06 19:19

Gửi bàigửi bởi wudang » Thứ 4 12/07/06 1:54

Ba Gua Zhang

AN INTRODUCTION TO BA GUA ZHANG

Ba Gua Zhang is recognized as one of the three orthodox "internal" styles of Chinese martial art (the other two being Hsing-I Ch'uan and T'ai-Chi Ch'uan). Ba Gua literally translates to Eight trigrams. These trigrams are symbols which are used to represent all natural phenomena as described in the ancient Chinese text of divination, the Book of Changes (I Ching). Zhang means palm and designates Ba Gua Zhang as a style of martial art, which emphasizes the use of the open hand in preference to the closed fist. Ba Gua Zhang, as a martial art, is based on the theory of continuously changing in response to the situation at hand in order to overcome an opponent with skill rather than brute force.

Although there are several theories as to the Origins of Ba Gua Zhang, recent and exhaustive research by martial scholars in Mainland China conclude without reasonable doubt that the Art is the creation of a single individual, Dong Hai Chuan. Dong was born in Wen An County, Hebei Province about 1813. Dong practiced local martial arts (which reportedly relied heavily upon the use of open hand palm techniques) from his youth and gained some notoriety as a skilled fighter. At about 40 years of age, Dong left home and traveled southward. At some point during his travels, Dong became a member of the Chuan Zhen (Complete Truth) sect of Taoism. The Taoists of this sect practiced a method of walking in a circle white reciting certain mantras. The practice was designed to quiet the mind and focus the intent as a prelude to enlightenment. Dong later combined the circle walking mechanics with the martial arts he had mastered in his youth to create a new style based on mobility and the ability to apply techniques while in constant motion (heretofore unknown in the history of Chinese martial arts).

Dong Hai Chuan originally called his art "Zhuan Zhang" (Turning Palm). In his later years, Dong began to speak of the Art in conjunction with the Eight Trigrams (Ba Gua) theory espoused in the Book of Changes (Yi Jing). When Dong began teaching his Zhuan Zhang in Beijing, he accepted as student only those who were already accomplished practitioners of other martial arts. Dong's teachings were limited to a few "palm changes" executed while walking the circle and his theory and techniques of combat. His students took Dong's forms and theories and combined them with the martial arts they had studied previously. The result is that each of Dong's students ended up with different interpretations of the Ba Gua Zhang art.

Most of the various styles of Ba Gua Zhang found today, can be traced back to one of several of Dong Hai Chuan's original students. Among these students, three individuals were responsible for passing on the Art to the greatest number of practitioners. One of Dong's most famous students was a man named Yin Fu. Yin studied with Dong longer than any other and was one of the most respected fighters in the country in his time (he was the personal bodyguard to the Dowager Empress, the highest prestige position of its kind in the entire country). Yin Fu was a master of Luo Han Quan, a Northern Chinese "external" style of boxing, before he began his long apprenticeship with Dong. Another top student of Dong's was Cheng Ting Hua, originally a master of Shuai Jiao (Chinese wrestling). Cheng taught a great number of students in his time and variations of his style are many. A third student of Dong's who created his own Ba Gua Zhang variant was Liang Zhen Pu. Liang was Dong's youngest student and was greatly influenced by Dong's other disciples. Although Ba Gua Zhang is a relatively new form of martial, art, it became famous throughout China during its inventor's lifetime, mainly because of its effectiveness in combat and the high prestige this afforded its practitioners.

The basis of the various styles of Ba Gua Zhang, and the practice all styles have in common, is the circle walk. The practitioner literally walks in a circle while holding various static postures with the upper body or while executing "palm changes" (short patterns of movement or "forms" which train the body mechanics and methods of generating power which form the basis of the styles' fighting techniques).

All styles have a variation of a form known as the Single Palm Change. The Single Palm Change is the most basic form and is the nucleus of the remaining palm changes found in the Art. Besides the Single Palm Change, the other forms include the Double Palm Change and the Eight Palm Changes (also known variously as the Eight Mother Palms or the Old Eight Palms).

These forms make up the foundation of the art of Ba Gua Zhang. Ba Gua Zhang movements have a characteristic circular nature and there is a great deal of body spinning, turning, and rapid changes in direction. In addition to the Single, Double and Eight Palm Changes, most but not all styles of Ba Gua Zhang include some variation of the Sixty-Four Palms. The Sixty-Four Palms include forms which teach the mechanics and sequence of the specific fighting techniques included in the style. These forms take the general energies developed during the practice of the Palm Changes and focus them into more exact patterns of movement, which are applied directly to a specific combat technique. Ba Gua Zhang is an art based on evasive footwork and a kind of guerilla warfare strategy applied to personal combat. A Ba Gua fighter relies on strategy and skill, rather than the direct use of force against force or brute strength, in overcoming an opponent. The strategy employed is aggressive in nature and emphasizes constant change in response to the spontaneous and "live" quality of combat.

In addition to the above forms and methods, most styles of Ba Gua Zhang include various two-person forms and drills as intermediate steps between solo forms and the practice of combat techniques. Although the techniques of Ba Gua Zhang are many and various, they all adhere to the above mentioned principles of mobility and the skillful application of force. Many styles of Ba Gua Zhang also include the use of a variety of weapons, ranging from the more standard types (straight sword, broadsword, spear) to exotic weapons, used exclusively by practitioners of the Ba Gua Zhang arts.

Each of Dong Hai Chuan's students developed their own style of Ba Gua Zhang based on their individual backgrounds and previous martial training. Each style has its own specific forms and techniques. In essence, all of the different styles adhere to the basic principles of Ba Gua Zhang while retaining an individual flavor of their own. Most of the styles in existence today can trace their roots to either the Yin Fu, Cheng Ting Hua, or Liang Zhen Pu variations.

Yin Fu styles include a large number of percussive techniques and fast striking combinations (Yin Fu was said to "fight like a tiger", moving in and knocking his opponent to the ground swiftly like a tiger pouncing on its prey). The forms include many explosive movements and very quick and evasive footwork.

Cheng Ting Hua styles of Ba Gua Zhang include palm changes which are done in a smooth and flowing manner, with little display of overt power (Cheng Ting Hua's movement was likened to that of a dragon soaring in the clouds, it is said each time he turned his body, his opponent would fly away.) Popular variations of this style include the Gao Yi Sheng system, Dragon Style Ba Gua Zhang, "Swimming Body" Ba Gua Zhang, the Nine Palace System, JiangRong Qiao's style (probably the most common form practiced today) and the Sun Lu Tang style.

Liang Zhen Pu's style can be viewed as a combination of the Yin Fu and Cheng Ting Hua styles. Liang’s student, Li Zi Ming, popularized this style.

The basic focus and function of all martial arts is fighting. Since there are only so many ways humans can move in a martial context (strike, kick, push, pull, etc.), what distinguishes one style of martial art from another? Collections of techniques do not make up a style, neither does mimicking the movements of an animal, bug, or even another person constitute a style of martial arts. In the last analysis, a style of martial art is distinct and recognizable as a coherent system because it adheres to a set of specific principles.

All styles are based upon a set of fundamental principles, and every movement, technique and strategy applied or created must be in alignment with the chosen principles of that particular style. These principles define and determine the nature of a style in two major areas, namely, body use (Ti) and application (Yung). The principles of a style will determine how things are to be done. For example, the principles of one style may dictate that the muscles must be tensed at impact when throwing a punch, while another style's principles demand total relaxation throughout the blow. Practitioners of both styles are punching, but there is a qualitative difference in body use (i.e. different styles of punching).

Just as the principles of body use determine the physicality of the practitioner and the specific methods of moving and generating power, the principles of application determine the technique base as well as the fighting strategies of a particular style. The evolution of martial arts: styles have always come about this way: A student of one or more styles of martial art comes upon a new principle or organizes a set of principles in a unique way, based upon his background, experience and personal bias. The result is a new style of martial art. It is new not because the founder added a few techniques to his existing style, but rather because he changed all that he had done before to align with his newly understood principles of body use and application.

The founder of Ba Gua Zhang, Dong Hai Quan, was an expert in a Northern Chinese style of martial art akin to Long Fist, which emphasized the use of the open hand. Subsequently, Dong spent a number of years living with a group of Taoists who practiced a method of walking in a circular pattern while chanting. The practice was used as a means of reaching enlightenment. Dong later combined the circular footwork and body method learned from the Taoists with the martial arts he studied in his youth to create a new martial art, later to become known as Ba Gua Zhang. Please note that the Taoists taught Dong absolutely nothing of a martial nature; what Dong acquired from the Taoists were the principles of circular footwork and a certain method of body use. Dong modified the movements and techniques of his original form of martial art around these principles, thereby creating a new style of martial art. It is very important to understand that Ba Gua Zhang as a style of martial art is not simply a collection of forms and techniques, but rather an art based on a set of unifying principles.

Dong Hai Quan only taught established masters of the martial arts; he accepted no beginners. The training was designed to allow his students (already masters of other martial arts in their own right) to modify their original arts in accordance with the principles of Ba Gua Zhang. Because of the diverse backgrounds of Dong's original students, their resultant styles of Ba Gua Zhang may differ greatly in terms of form and technique, but all are truly styles of Ba Gua Zhang as they adhere to the underlying principles of body use and application which define Ba Gua Zhang as a unique style. There will always be room for creativity within the Ba Gua Zhang arts. As long as a movement or technique adheres to the Fundamental principles of Ba Gua Zhang, it is Ba Gua Zhang.

What are the basic principles of Ba Gua Zhang? It is helpful to divide the analysis into two major categories: principles of body use (with the primary emphasis on the ability to generate power with the body as a coherent Unit) and principles of application

BODY USE:

The basic solo training in Ba Gua Zhang is designed to teach the practitioner how to control his or her momentum and timing in order to generate power with the entire body mass as a coherent unit. In the Chinese martial arts, this type of power is referred to as whole body power (Zheng Ti Jing). Whole body power enables the practitioner to issue force from any part of the body with the support of all other parts. Each part of the body coordinates with every other, generating the maximum amount of power available relative to the individual's size and weight. Whole body power is applied in all categories of Ba Gua Zhang techniques, striking, kicking, grappling and throwing.

Although other styles of Internal arts also advocate the use of whole body power, what sets Ba Gua Zhang apart is its emphasis on circularity; the movements of the Art include twisting, spiraling, turning and spiraling. Specifically, the Ba Gua Zhang fighter is doing one of two things: either circling around a central point outside the body (walking the circle, the basic practice of Ba Gua Zhang, is the most common example of this), or rotating the body around its center (performing the palm changes, for example). Consequently, the primary energy in Ba Gua Zhang is horizontal (Heng Jing), with vertical energy (Shu Jing) playing a secondary role. Ba Gua Zhang also makes use of spiraling energy, which is a combination of the horizontal and vertical energies.

In order to create whole body power in the Ba Gua Zhang format, as well as to facilitate the agile and evasive footwork utilized in the Art, all styles of Ba Gua Zhang emphasize complete physical relaxation, correct skeletal alignment, natural movements which are in harmony with the body's inborn reflexes and inherent design and that all movements are directed by the intent.

It is the fighting strategy of Ba Gua Zhang which most sets it apart from all other styles of martial art. Dong Hai Quan's unique background and combat experience, combined with his talent, resulted in a strategy of personal combat that had remained undiscovered in the preceding millennia of martial development in China. Basically, Ba Gua Zhang fighting theory advocates the complete avoidance of opposing power with power and adopts a kind of guerilla warfare mentality. The Ba Gua Zhang fighter continuously seeks to avoid the apex of the opponent's force and attacks or counterattacks from the opponent's weak angles. By circling around and circumventing incoming force and resistance, the Ba Gua Zhang fighter applies his own whole body power from a position of superiority This strategy allows the smaller and weaker fighter to apply maximum force from an angle at which the larger and stronger opponent cannot resist, effectively making the weaker fighter more powerful at that moment (for example, I have 10 units of total strength and my opponent has 20. I attack with my full 10 units of strength at an angle at which my opponent is only able to use 5 units of his total strength. I am, at that moment, literally twice as strong as my opponent).

In order to obtain a superior position, the Ba Gua Zhang fighter applies the basic strategies trained in the solo forms' practice, that is, circling around the opponent or rotating the opponent around oneself. The result is the same in both cases. The Ba Gua Zhang fighter avoids a head to head confrontation with the opponent's power and obtains a superior position from which to attack. Along the way, the opponent often becomes entangled in the Ba Gua Zhang fighter's limbs and loses control of his center of balance (correctly applied momentum overcomes brute strength every time). This loss of balance causes a commensurate loss of power and further weakens the opponent, leaving him vulnerable to the Ba Gun Zhang fighter's attack. Finally, the relaxed physical and mental state of the Ba Gua Zhang fighter makes it possible for him to change and adapt as the situation demands. His movements are spontaneous and difficult to predict. Fighters of all disciplines agree that the unpredictable fighter is the hardest to beat (especially when he circles behind you!).

Note: The source of the following information can be found at www.angelfire.com/pa/sifuphil/bagua.html



Cheng style
(The source of this biographical information is the Pa Kua Chang Journal Vol. 3, No 6 Sept/Oct 1993)



Cheng Ting-Hua (also known as Cheng Ying-Fang) was born in 1848 in the Cheng family village, Shen County, Hebei Province. The third of four brothers, Cheng had pock marks on his face when he was young and thus he was known as “third son with pock marks” Cheng. Cheng T'ing-Hua was fond of martial arts and in his youth he gained skill at wielding a 90 kg broadsword and a large heavy staff. When Cheng was still fairly young, he left his hometown and went to Beijing to apprentice with a gentleman who made eyeglasses. Intent on improving his martial arts skill, Cheng also began to study Chinese wrestling (Shuai Chiao) when he arrived in Beijing.

In the late 1800s, two wrestling styles were popular in Beijing, Manchurian/Mongolian wrestling and Pao Ting “fast style” wrestling. The Pao Ting style was quicker than the Manchurian style. As soon as the opponent came in contact with the wrestler, he would be thrown. There was not any grappling, struggling, or tussling as we see in western wrestling. This wrestling also combined punching, kicking, joint locking and point striking with its throwing techniques. Cheng T'ing-Hua was a avid wrestler and studied both of the popular wrestling styles when he was a young man in Beijing. He practiced hard and made a name for himself as a wrestler. He was not a big name in the martial arts world yet, however, most martial artists in Beijing knew of him and knew he was skilled at shuai chiao.

By 1870, Tung Hai-Chuan had become very well known in Beijing (research indicates that Tung first arrived in Beijing around 1865). When Cheng was approximately 28 years old (1876), he sought out Tung in order to improve his skill. Some say that Cheng had become friends with Yin Fu and Shih Chi-Tung (two of Tung Hai-Chuans first Pa Kua students) and that they had encouraged him to go and meet Tung. When the two first met, Tung asked Cheng to use his shuai chiao against him. Cheng made several attempts at attacking Tung but was never able to even lay a hand on him. Cheng knelt down and asked Tung if he could become a student. At this point in time, Tung had not accepted many Pa Kua Chang students. Although Tung had taught many people martial arts in the Prince of Su's palace, it is said that he had only taught Pa Kua to three people prior to teaching Cheng Ting-Hua. The large majority of his students in the palace were said to have learned something other than Pa Kua from Tung.

If those who say Tung's original tombstone had his students listed in the order in which he taught them are correct, then Cheng was indeed Tung's fourth disciple, as his name appears fourth on the list. The first name listed on this stele is Yin Fu, followed by Ma Wei-Chi, Shih Chi-Tung, and then Cheng Ting-Hua. The year Cheng met Tung was approximately 1876. Tung died in 1882, so at best Cheng studied with Tung for 5 or 6 years.

Tung Hai-Chuan was known to have only accepted Pa Kua Chang students who were already skilled in another style of martial art. It is said that after laying a Pa Kua foundation with the circle walk practice, single palm change, double palm change, and smooth changing palm, Tung would teach the student Pa Kua Chang based on what the student already knew. Taking this information to be true, we can assume that Tung would have taught Cheng using Chengs knowledge of shuai chiao as a base.

The Pa Kua styles which most notably display a Hsing-I flavor are the styles which were taught by Cheng and his friends Li Tsun-I, Liu Te-Kuan, and Chang Chao-Tung. Although all three of these Hsing-I masters are recorded as being Pa Kua Chang students of Tung Hai-Chuan, there is evidence that suggests Li, Liu, and Chang learned their Pa Kua from Cheng Ting-Hua, not Tung Hai-Chuan.

The link between Hsing-I and Pa Kua was most likely forged when Cheng Ting-Hua and his friends Li Tsun-I, Chang Chao-Tung, Liu Te-Kuan, and Liu Wai-Hsiang got together to compare styles and learn from each other (Li Tsun-I, Liu Te-Kuan, and Chang Chao-Tung were all Hsing-I boxing brothers under the same teacher, Liu Chi-Lan. Liu Wai-Hsiang was a Hsing-I student of Chang Chao-Tung). Cheng Ting-Hua was a very open martial artist who would teach his Pa Kua to anyone who cared to learn it. He enjoyed meeting other martial artist to compare styles and share the techniques and theories of martial arts. He also enjoyed sharing his Pa Kua Chang skill with other martial artists. Cheng is said to have been the person responsible for teaching Liu Te-Kuan, Li Tsun-I, and Chang Chao-Tung their Pa Kua Chang, however, since they were very skilled in Hsing-I and thus were Cheng's peers, he did not feel right calling them his “students.” Therefore, Cheng said that they should say they learned their Pa Kua from his teacher, Tung Hai-Chuan.

Cheng Ting-Hua was killed during the Boxer Rebellion when the “eight foreign armies” invaded Beijing (1900). It turns out that a group of German soldiers were forcefully recruiting locals for a work detail near Beijings Chung Wen gate were Cheng's shop was located. Cheng was on the street at the time and the Germans stopped him and tried to put him in line with the others. Cheng resisted and wanted to fight, he may have beaten a few soldiers during the struggle, but when he pulled out a short knife, the soldiers drew their guns. Cheng tried to run and leap over a nearby wall. As he was jumping over the wall, he was shot. He was 52 years old.

Yin StyleYin Fu was a native of Qi district, Hebei Province, and was a lifelong student of martial arts including Luo Han Quan or Arhat Boxing (a form of Shaolin boxing).

When he first arrived in Beijing, he worked as an apprentice in a cutlery shop. He had heard of Dong Haichuan's reputation and longed very much to study under the master. He therefore set out to sell hot cakes day after day in front of the palace gates. In this way, he ultimately contacted the master who rewarded his sincerity and persistence by accepting him as a pupil. Yin began to practice his newly learned art with untiring energy and soon came to master whatever his teacher could impart. He learned Luo Han Quan first from Master Dong - his was one of the martial arts Dong taught to the palace soldiers.

Yin Fu's background in martial arts before he met Master Dong is not very clear. It is possible that Yin Fu either: A) knew nothing before he met Dong, B) knew Mei Hua Quan (Plum Flower Boxing) and Lian Huan Tui (Chain Kicking), or C) knew She Xin Quan (Snake Tongue Boxing).

It is not known exactly when Yin Fu learned Bagua. However, he traveled to Mongolia with Master Dong on a tax-collecting mission for the Emperor. Dong and Yin spent ten years collecting taxes (a pugilistic endeavor) and practicing bagua in Mongolia. When the Emperor called the pair back to Beijing, Yin was well versed in Bagua.

Although Yin was thin, earning the nickname 'skinny', his outward appearance hid his true strength. He had sensitive and agile legs, with very quick footwork. He could lock, trap, sweep, stick, follow, guide, or unbalance an opponent with his legs.

Iron Bracelet Technique - This was a famous technique from Yin Fu's repertoire. Yin Fu could grab an opponent's wrist with great tenacity - his index finger and thumb were so strong that the opponent could not break free. Using this technique, Yin Fu could easily crush an opponent's wrist.

In 1900, he was responsible for escorting the Empress Dowager out of Beijing when the city was under siege from foreign troops. After this incident, he became famous and many pupils studied under him.

Yin was the first person to popularize the Ox Tongue Palm (Niu She Zhang), the 64 changes set, and was the oldest and longest student of Dong.

Yin Fu Style Baguazhang includes the practice of the Crescent Moon Knives, the Wind and Fire Wheel, the Deer Horn Knives, and the Yin-Yang Brush Pens. Yin Fu's weapon preferences were the Deer Horn Knives and the Yin-Yang Brush Pens. Within the Yin style are also included Shaolin martial arts, the traditional Bagua forms, transitional forms (a mixture of Shaolin and Bagua), and a variety of different circle walking techniques and forms.

*According to Men Bao Zhen's (Men Bao Zhen was one of Yin Fu's top students) student Xie Pei Qi (who inherited Yin Fu' s complete system), Yin Fu's complete system of Ba Gua Zhang is so diverse that it would be very difficult to try and pin down the "characteristics" of his system. As did Dong Haichuan, Yin Fu taught each of his students to take advantage of their individual natural strengths and thus each student was taught differently. Yin Fu though, had his own characteristic strengths. Xie Pei Qi stated that even though Yin Fu learned and taught all of Dong Haichuan's Ba Gua Zhang, Yin himself specialized in the snake style of Dong's Ba Gua Zhang. Yin Fu was famous for his use of footwork in evasion and in applying short powerful kicks. His hand work was best applied in adhering, deflecting, and striking very quickly. Yin's application of force was quick, springy and explosive. His hands moved in straight lines to attack as evident in his characteristic "piercing" palm. He liked to employ his fingers in striking a vital point on the opponent's body and immediately follow the finger strike with a palm strike using the same hand. As soon as the fingers struck the point, the wrist would fold and the palm would strike swiftly without any pull-back of the hand. The palm strikd would be immediately followed by an elbow strike. Yin's attacks were very quick and fierce, once an attack was initiated, there was no letting up. Quickness and evasion were his strengths. (*Note: Information in the preceding section comes from an article on the Ba Gua Zhang of Yin Fu which appeared in the Pa Kua Chang Journal Vol. 4, No. 1 Nov/Dec 1993)

Yin Fu's top pupils were Ma Gui, Li Yong Qing, Men Bao Zhen. Some of Yin Fu's other students who reached a high level of skill included Cui Zhendong, Gong Baotian and his own sons, Yin Cheng Zhang (Yin Fu's 3rd son) and Yin Yu Zhang (Yin Fu's 4th son). Master Yin Fu died in 1911 at the age of 69. Today, Yin style Ba Gua is practiced around the world.



A Comparison Of Characteristics Between Yin Style Baguazhang And Cheng Style Bagua

(The source of this information is the Pa Kua Chang Journal Vol. 3, No 2 Jan/Feb 1993)



It would be difficult to say exactly what Cheng Ting-Hua learned from Tung Hai-Ch'uan and in what manner he was taught. After Tungs death, Cheng systematized what he learned from Tung and added to it based on his personal experience and the knowledge he gained through interaction with other martial artists. He taught and popularized what is now called Cheng Style “swimming body” Pa Kua Chang.

Although Cheng style Pa Kua Chang employs many different palm shapes, it relies on the “Dragon-Claw” Palm as its basic palm. It is commonly known that Cheng style Pa Kua employs the dragon-claw palm while Yin Fu style utilizes the “ox-tongue” palm shape as its basic palm. It is naive to assume that these palms shapes were the only ones employed by these two masters because each of them utilized a great variety of palm techniques. Why then are these palms associated with these two styles of Pa Kua? Kao I-Sheng style Pa Kua Chang instructor Lo Te-Shu of Taipei, Taiwan, explains that these palms are called “dragon-claw” and “ox-tongue” because of the manner in which they are employed. Because Cheng and Yin Fu came from diverse martial arts backgrounds and because their physical characteristics were different, their approach to Pa Kua Chang usage was also different. Examining how Cheng Ting-Hua and Yin Fu approached martial arts combat and how these two different palms are employed will give one insights into the major differences between the two styles and thus let one understand why these two masters Pa Kua styles are associated with these two palm shapes.

Cheng Ting-Hua was a man of average height and build and had a strong background in Pao Ting “fast” wrestling. With this background, we can assume that Cheng was adept at moving quickly into close range and applying grabbing and throwing techniques prior to studying Pa Kua Chang. The “dragon kua” of Tungs Pa Kua method made the most use of the techniques that Cheng would have already been good at and thus it seems logical that Tung would train Cheng in this Pa Kua style. In Chinese Mythology, the dragon has short, strong arms which are quick and appear suddenly out of the clouds. The dragon-claw techniques are employed at close range, the arms twist, turn, coil, move and change quickly while grabbing and pulling the opponent off balance to set up for a throw or trike. In Pa Kua Chang the action of the hands and arms are connected to the body and thus when employing the dragon-claw techniques, the practitioners body will also turn, twist, and move quickly. These characteristics of Chengs Pa Kua are what earned it the name “swimming body.”

Yin Fu was a thin man with small hands who had a background in Lohan Shaolin before studying Pa Kua Chang. While Chengs dragon-claw palm was open and thus ideal for grabbing and his swimming body techniques were used to move in close and throw the opponent, Yin's ox-tongue palm was used for sticking, deflecting, and striking. As an ox's tongue sticks to what it is licking, Yin's palms would adhere to an opponents force, deflect it, and then strike. While Cheng liked to apply heng, or crossing force, in throwing, Yin liked to deflect and apply chuan chang, or piercing palm. While Cheng liked to use circular movements to control the opponent and bring him off balance by grabbing and applying contracting power (tun ching), Yin Fu's application of force was quick, springy and explosive and the hands moved in straight lines. While Chengs movements tended to be long and round, Yin's were short and quick.

Cheng Ting-Huas Pa Kua footwork was in line with his grabbing and throwing methods. He mostly employed kou pu and pai pu to hook and trap the opponents feet and legs and was fond of stepping in deep between the opponents legs. His footwork was designed to help him close with the opponent. Because Yin Fu was best and adhering, deflecting and striking, his footwork was much more evasive than Chengs. Yin employed side-to-side stepping, and/or pivoting to avoid an attack and then stepped straight in at an angle which exposed the opponents vulnerability. This is evident when we study how Yin Fu style practitioners train today. For each of the basic sections of their form, they employ a different type of foot method. Whereas Cheng liked to close with the enemy and trap his legs, Yin Fu was more fond of kicking the opponents legs.

When examining the body posture of the two styles, we can also note differences. In general, Yin Fu style Pa Kua practitioners tend to have a very "closed" body. The stance is narrow and the arms are held along the body's centerline to provide a very protected and closed target area. To further close the body, the Yin Fu stylists will bend forward at the hips and hollow the chest by rounding the shoulders. The spine remains straight, however, the body is bent forward at the hips. The Cheng style practitioners tend to have a more open body posture with the spine vertical and a more expanded chest.

This comparison highlights the methods employed most often by these masters in order to give you a general feeling for the predominant characteristics of the two different styles.
wudang
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 407
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 05/02/06 19:19

XINGYI BAGUA

Gửi bàigửi bởi wudang » Thứ 2 07/08/06 16:46

Xingyi Bagua : l’enseignement de Zhang Zhao Dong

La transmission de Zhang Zhao Dong, appelée Xingyi Bagua (Hsing i Pa kua), comportait deux aspects :
le premier est un Bagua zhang (Pa kua chang) de synthèse destiné au plus grand nombre, qui se fonde sur des anciennes pratiques du Xing yi quan (Hsing i ch'üan) et du Bagua zhang ; l’entraînement débute par des exercices préliminaires simplifiés et des mouvements de grande amplitude ;

le second, totalement méconnu, est une compilation destinée à une élite, la transmission intégrale des pratiques anciennes Xin yi quan et Bagua zhang orthodoxe ; l’entraînement commence par les exercices de principe et les applications de combat à l’aspect violent dont les techniques sont de très courte amplitude. Ces pratiques sont complémentaires et sont abordées conjointement.

Alors que les exercices de formation de la méthode Xingyi Bagua (hsing i pa kua) étaient enseignés sans restriction, peu d’élèves, par leur capacité et leur travail, accédaient à l’enseignement supérieur. Dans les années 1960, en raison des fantasques de la politique chinoise, les enseignements furent réduits à de simples aspects gymniques. C’est pourquoi l’origine du Xingyi Bagua reste obscure pour de nombreux pratiquants.

Xin yi quan et Ba Gua Zhang : convergences pratiques
Les similarités entre les méthodes anciennes de Xin yi quan et Bagua zhang sont nombreuses, et leur compatibilité autorise leur pratique simultanée. L’emploi du yi et les caractéristiques mentales associées aux pratiques sont semblables. Les règles fondamentales d’utilisation de la force mentale et d’apprentissage du jing (ching) sont associées à la règle de liu he, combinaison sextuple. A ce jour, cette règle aux applications multiples n’a jamais été révélée publiquement : c’est le pratiquant qui la découvre par sa propre expérience, en suivant les indications de son instructeur.
Parmi les points communs aux pratiques anciennes du Bagua zhang et du Xin yi quan, certains aspects sont assez facilement repérables pour le profane.

(Dans les exercices de zhan zhuang ou postures ; les deux mains sont employées simultanément pour exprimer la puissance.)






Dans les exercices de postures, l’espace entre les pieds est restreint, l’espace entre les mains est restreint, la tête est maintenue vers le haut et le menton est rentré, de manière à maintenir la colonne vertébrale sur un axe vertical ;

les postures s’effectuent le plus souvent en appui réparti également sur les deux pieds ;

les paumes sont creuses, les doigts sont tendus et écartés ;

les deux mains sont utilisées simultanément, la puissance est maintenue continuellement jusqu’aux extrémités des quatre membres et de la tête ;

les zhan zhuang (chan chuang) sont le fondement de l’entraînement, et contiennent le travail sur les principes ; les acquis des zhan zhuang sont ensuite appliqués en mouvement, puis en déplacement ;

de nombreux exercices aboutissent à des applications techniques en position de profil par rapport à l’adversaire ;

les saisies, clés et projections sont un moyen de mettre en application et d’assimiler les paramètres des zhan zhuang.

XINGYI BAGUA : le système de Ba gua zhang de Zhang Zhao Dong
En favorisant les exercices de principe, le Bagua zhang des origines demeure difficile d’accès. Ajouter des développements aurait dénaturé la valeur de cette méthode d’entraînement que Zhang Zhao Dong a conservé intacte pour ses meilleurs élèves. Pour permettre un abord plus aisé aux débutants, Zhang Zhao Dong a préféré systématiser une méthode séparée d’entraînement qui sert de préambule aux pratiques de principe : le Xingyi Bagua. C’est en associant des pratiques anciennes de Xing yi quan à celles du Bagua zhang des origines que Zhang Zhao Dong a établi la méthode de synthèse Xingyi Bagua, destinée à un enseignement public.
Dans la méthode Xingyi Bagua, les apports du Xing yi quan ancien sont principalement :
- la puissance explosive, plus accessible que la puissance continue qui reste l’objectif à long terme ;
- les types d’états d’esprit, dont la pratique est peu développée dans le Bagua zhang. Par exemple, l’utilisation de figures animales dans l’entraînement permet d’exercer les états d’esprits correspondants. En outre, les indications de figures animales se réfèrent à des utilisations spécifiques du jing.

Dans la dénomination Xingyi Bagua, Xingyi signifie que la méthode d’entraînement se présente au débutant sous l’aspect d’imitation de formes et d’exemples au moyen du corps physique. Bien entendu, la conformité à ces modèles de travail sont temporaires et de nature à rassurer le débutant. Les fruits de l’investissement mental permettent ensuite d’aborder une phase de pratique plus abstraite et intuitive.

Le Xingyi Bagua comporte des exercices pour débutants et un enchaînement : Bagua lianhuan zhang. Ce dao lu, enchaînement technique, favorise une mise en condition du mental et la formation du corps. Dans cet exercice, les postures, les mouvements et l’espace entre les mains sont souvent de grande amplitude. Les pratiquants qui ne s’attardent pas sur ces aspects, mais passent directement aux exercices de combat et à l’entraînement avec un partenaire, découvrent des pratiques anciennes de Xin yi quan et Bagua zhang, dont l’exécution est d’amplitude réduite.

Le Xingyi Bagua est une méthode composite prévue pour mettre le pratiquant sur les traces des adeptes qui ont pratiqué le Xin yi quan et le Bagua Zhang orthodoxes, dont le but est le travail sur des principes.


Dans l’enchaînement, les séries d’exercices xingyi bagua sont des interprétations inspirées du Xing yi quan ancien. "Le serpent doré s’enroule autour du saule" tiré du livre de Jiang Rong Qiao Baguazhang liangxifa (1963).

(Tham khảo:http://www.zhenguamen.com/intro/intro_cad.html)
wudang
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 407
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 05/02/06 19:19

Gửi bàigửi bởi neijaman » Thứ 2 07/08/06 17:07

bạn Wudang có thể dịch những bài này sang tiếng Việt được không?
neijaman
Junior Member
Junior Member
 
Bài viết: 51
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 23/07/06 19:54

Gửi bàigửi bởi wudang » Thứ 2 07/08/06 17:46

Bài về BQC bẳng tiếng Anh theo thiển ý của wudang là rất hay, nhất là phân tích về sự khác biết giữa hai dòng BQC: Trình thị và Doãn thị. Phần Tiếng Anh xin nhờ bên anh Quan-ma s te r dịch cho. Còn phần tiếng Pháp nếu mọi người quan tâm thi tôi sẽ xin dich . Anh Quân có đồng ý với wudang không ạ?
wudang
Thành viên rất tích cực
Thành viên rất tích cực
 
Bài viết: 407
Ngày tham gia: Chủ nhật 05/02/06 19:19

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 4 13/09/06 19:12

Nhờ Bạn Wudan và Bạn Môtgiọt dịch cho Anh Em luôn thể , cám ơn trước.

YinBagua
The Eight Palm Methods
连环掌 lián huán zhǎng - Interlocking Palm - Qian Trigram
顺势掌 shùn shì zhǎng - Following with the Force/ Momentum Palm - Kan Trigram
背身掌 bèi shēn zhǎng - Behind the Back Palm - Gen Trigram
平托掌 píng tuō zhǎng - Supporting and Lifting Palm - Zhen Trigram
风轮掌 fēng lún zhǎng - Wind Wheel Palm - Xun Trigram
卧掌 wò zhǎng - Lying Step Palm - Li Trigram
返身掌 fǎn shēn zhǎng - Returning Body Palm - Kun Trigram
抱掌 bào zhǎng - Enfolding Palm - Dui Trigram

The Six Principle Characters of Yin Style Bagua

Stable 稳 wěn - stable, steady; sure; certain.

Accurate 准 zhun - allow; in accordance with; follow; standard; norm; criterion; accurate;

Vicious 狠 hěn - ruthless; relentless; suppress (one's feelings); harden (the heart); firm; resolute.

Cold 冷 lěng - cold; cold in manner;

Crisp 脆 cuì - clear; crisp;

Fast 快 kuài - fast; quick; rapid; speed; hurry up; make haste;





The Five Forces of Yin Style Bagua

'Li' is physical force derived from the working of the muscles, tendons, and skeletal system. These movements generally involve the whole body and in Yin Style Bagua there are basically five ways to achieve this without breaking the principles of being an internal art. Note that many strikes contain the overlapping of one or more forces.

I. 逆力Ni Li ( Opposing, Moving against )- This force generates a scissors like effect when the upper and lower body oppose each other, stretching and twisting the major muscles and tissues of the torso. The power arrives when the body snaps back into its natural state. This force is circular and on a relatively horizontal plane.

II. 順力 Shun Li ( Unifying, Moving with )- This force generates a whole-body power when all the separate parts are moving in unity and in the same direction. The shoulders, waist, and hips will all be in time and in perfect unison. This force is also circular and on a relatively horizontal plane.

III. 含力Han Li ( Concaving, Containing )- This force is circular but can be done on horizontal, diagonal, and vertical planes. Its done through a combination of the lengthening and contracting ability of the spine/torso and the ability of the arms and shoulders to work in unison.

IV. 挺力Ting Li ( Straight, Driving )- This force is generated at the back foot, which then travels up the leg to the tailbone and then outward in any direction in a relatively horizontal plane. The power comes from the connection between the hand and the lower spine, any line of force can be traced back through the arm to the lower spine and then to the ground. The back foot is strongly rooted and the joints of the arm are held immovable through the strength of the tendons and ligaments.

V. 登力Deng Li ( Spiraling)- This force comes from the legs and their connection to the ground, it is done in a circular manner and usually on an upward diagonal plane. The power comes from the foot, spiraling or corkscrewing upward through the legs, hips, torso, and finally through the arms and upon meeting resistance it traces the same route back to the ground. It can also be done by using the hinge joint power of the leg which is a sixth type of force called Beng. Which roughly translates as a popping force. This force sends a straight abrupt stopping force along a horizontal plane through the body. Since both of these forces involve the use of the legs and are interchangeable but not combined, they therefore count as one force.
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 6 15/09/06 18:02

2Bạn giúp luon cho nha :
Tập tin đính kèm
The Phoenix.JPG
The Phoenix.JPG (40.67 KiB) Đã xem 19043 lần
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 6 15/09/06 18:35

Giúp luôn nha !
Tập tin đính kèm
The Phoenix2.JPG
The Phoenix2.JPG (56.61 KiB) Đã xem 18983 lần
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 6 15/09/06 18:40

Tiếp
Tập tin đính kèm
The Phoenix3.JPG
The Phoenix3.JPG (21.76 KiB) Đã xem 18645 lần
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 6 15/09/06 18:41

tiếp nửa
Tập tin đính kèm
The Phoenix4.JPG
The Phoenix4.JPG (45.71 KiB) Đã xem 18518 lần
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 6 15/09/06 18:45

còn
Tập tin đính kèm
The Phoenix5.JPG
The Phoenix5.JPG (43.17 KiB) Đã xem 18340 lần
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 6 15/09/06 18:47

nửa
Tập tin đính kèm
The Phoenix6.JPG
The Phoenix6.JPG (30.75 KiB) Đã xem 18189 lần
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 6 15/09/06 18:49

nửa nha !
Tập tin đính kèm
The Phoenix7.JPG
The Phoenix7.JPG (43.2 KiB) Đã xem 18082 lần
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Gửi bàigửi bởi tothy » Thứ 6 15/09/06 18:53

Thôi hết rồi :
http://yinbagua.com/web/MovieClips/TTBs ... (Broadband).WMV
http://yinbagua.com/web/MovieClips/MWTF ... (Broadband).WMV
Thật lòng nhờ 2 Bạn Giúp đở dịch cho Anh Em nhờ , cám ơn thật thật nhiều trước nha !
Tập tin đính kèm
The Phoenix8.JPG
The Phoenix8.JPG (10.15 KiB) Đã xem 17957 lần
Hình đại diện của thành viên
tothy
Senior Member
Senior Member
 
Bài viết: 604
Ngày tham gia: Thứ 6 30/01/04 16:51

Trang kế tiếp

Quay về Hình Ý Quyền

Ai đang trực tuyến?

Đang xem chuyên mục này: Không có thành viên nào đang trực tuyến1 khách

cron